Gonadal steroidogenesis ppt

After subcutaneous administration of 14 C-nafarelin acetate to men, 44–55% of the dose was recovered in urine and –% was recovered in feces. Approximately 3% of the administered dose appeared as unchanged nafarelin in urine. The 14C serum half-life of the metabolites was about hours. Six metabolites of nafarelin have been identified of which the major metabolite is Tyr-D(2)-Nal-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2(5-10). The activity of the metabolites, the metabolism of nafarelin by nasal mucosa , and the pharmacoki netics of the drug in hepatically- and renally-impaired patients have not been determined.

When activated macrophages start to secrete IL-1, which synergistically with CRH increases ACTH, [10] T-cells also secrete glucosteroid response modifying factor (GRMF), as well as IL-1; both increase the amount of cortisol required to inhibit almost all the immune cells. [11] Immune cells then assume their own regulation, but at a higher cortisol setpoint. The increase in cortisol in diarrheic calves is minimal over healthy calves, however, and falls over time. [58] The cells do not lose all their fight-or-flight override because of interleukin-1's synergism with CRH. Cortisol even has a negative feedback effect on interleukin-1 [10] —especially useful to treat diseases that force the hypothalamus to secrete too much CRH, such as those caused by endotoxic bacteria. The suppressor immune cells are not affected by GRMF, [11] so the immune cells' effective setpoint may be even higher than the setpoint for physiological processes. GRMF affects primarily the liver (rather than the kidneys) for some physiological processes. [59]

Gonadal steroidogenesis ppt

gonadal steroidogenesis ppt


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