Kortikosteroid adrenal adalah

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

A total of 103 asthmatic patients (29 in the triamcinolone acetonide group, 18 in the flunisolide group, 45 in the fluticasone propionate group, and 11 in the oral corticosteroids group [positive controls]) completed the study. Mean daily ICS doses and durations were as follows: triamcinolone acetonide: 448 microg for 36 months; flunisolide: 1,181 microg for 41 months; and fluticasone propionate: 745 microg for 19 months. Eleven of 30 patients taking high-dose ICSs (10 of 28 taking fluticasone propionate and 1 of 2 taking flunisolide) had both low morning cortisol levels and abnormal post-ACTH stimulation cortisol levels. Few patients taking lower doses of any ICS had abnormal results.

Kortikosteroid adrenal adalah

kortikosteroid adrenal adalah


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